Toyota Land Cruiser Frequently Asked Questions List

This release is basically a stopgap because I won't be able to do more work on
it until after I return from Rubithon in late June.

Edited by Rob Mullen (

Information shamelessly pilfered from:
Das Grosse Toyota LandCruiser Buch
Downey Off Road Manufacturing Catalog
Specter Off Road Catalog
TLC Engine Conversion Kit Instruction Manual (Advance Adapters)
Toyota Land Cruiser: 1956-1984
Toyota Trails (TLCA Newsletter)
Toyota Truck & LC Owner's Bible
Toyota Dealer Parts Microfiche
Toyota: A History of the First 50 Years
Toyota Repair manuals
Various 4x4 Magazines

Contributors (Although they may not have realized at the time :)
Rory Arms, Paul Bech, Gary Bjork, Drew Eckhardt, Lars Gottberg, Neil Kapperman,
Steve Kopito, Willem-Jan Markerink, Andrew Murphy, Park Owens, Marv Spector,
Ian Staines, Roy Stockman

For the Land Cruiser WWW page, check out:

Well, here goes. I've decided to bite the bullet and try to set up the
framework of a Land Cruiser FAQ. I do not claim to be a Land Cruiser expert--
all I am attempting to do is collect the knowledge that the experts on the
list have posted over time into one source. I welcome any suggestions,
corrections, or additions to this FAQ. I also welcome "articles" about
various projects (disc conversions/tranny swaps etc.) Your name will appear
alongside your article. The information in this FAQ is to be used AT YOUR
OWN RISK. I am not responsible for any death/dismemberment/grief/increase of
libido that any errors or misinformation cause you! Also please note: There
are NO spelling mistakes in this document. Anything that looks wrong to you
is actually just a Canadian spelling ;).

I have decided that I have put too much work into this thing to leave it as
"quasi-public domain" Although I can't claim copyright on say, the 1st gear
ratio of an H42 transmission, this COLLECTION of information is my intellectual
property as is what I believe to be unique tabular lay-out of the information.
In any case, you are free to use this information for non-commerical purposes
and distribute it as you wish PROVIDED: You do not modify it in any way, you
distribute it in complete form (including this disclaimer), and you do not
charge any kind of a fee for its distribution.

The History of Toyota
Trucks played a pivotal role in the history of the Toyota Motor Company. In
most cases, the Land Cruiser was the vehicle that carried the Toyota banner
into new markets. However, a complete history of Toyota requires a look at
the man whos company provided the capital and inital production facilities
necessary for the founding of the Toyota Motor Company.

Sakichi Toyoda was born in 1867 in Yamaguchi, Japan. He had dedicated his
life to the invention of an automatic textile loom. In 1907, he formed
Toyoda's Loom works, a company that by 1930 had grown into the Toyoda
Automatic Loom Works (TALW).

Although he shared the inventiveness of his father, Kiichiro Toyoda did not
share the fascination with looms. Instead Kiichiro dreamed of building
automobiles. In March 1930, he began to build a prototype engine in a corner
of the Toyoda Automatic Loom Works factory. By January 29, 1934, Kiichiro had
made enough progress with his engine design that TALW established an
Automobile Department. The first engine, a 3.4l I6 dubbed the Type A was
completed in September 1934. The first complete automobile prototype, the
Model A1 was completed in May 1935.

Due to restrictions on the domestic automobile industry, Kiichiro decided that
would be better to focus on the production of trucks. As a result, the first
prototype Toyota truck, the Model G1 was completed on August 25, 1935.

In July 1936, it was decided that the cars produced by TALW would be marketed
under the name "Toyota." The name was chosen because it sounded better than
Toyoda, the katakana characters used to represent it were more asthetically
pleasing, and consisted of eight strokes, a lucky number. The Toyota Motor
Co., Ltd. (TMC) was formed on August 28, 1937.

The Koromo Plant was officially opened in November of 1938. This plant would
later become known as the Honsha Plant--the site of LandCruiser Production. The
first vehicle produced at the new factory was the Model BM truck. The 75hp
engine used in this vehicle was to become the first engine in a Land Cruiser.

TMC struggled throughout World War II. It was conscripted into making aircraft
engines and tried to continue producing trucks with what little raw materials
were available. After Japan's surrender in 1945, Toyota was allowed to begin
production of trucks to aid in the rebuilding of Japan. By 1947, production had
begun on the Model BM truck and the Model SB small truck.

In 1950, the U.S. military filed a special procurement order for 1000 4wd
vehicles to be used in the Korean War. Toyota responded with a prototype of
the Model BJ on August 1, 1951. The vehicle was named the "Toyota Jeep"
Fortunately, the right to the "Jeep" name was owned by Willys who forced
Toyota to pick another name. On June 24, 1954, the name "Land Cruiser" was

In 1955, 23 Land Cruisers were exported to Saudi Arabia. The vehicles proved to
be wildly popular and exports grew steadily

On Feb 21, 1956, the first two Land Cruisers were exported to Venezuela. These
were quickly followed exports to Burma, Malaysia, and Puerto Rico.

Toyota entered the African market by sending Crowns and Land Cruisers to
Ethiopia. Because marketing proved difficult with the large number of languages
spoken in Africa, Toyota was forced to adopt the sales technique of driving a
sample vehicle all over Africa.

The U.S.A. was somewhat different in that in 1957, it received two Crowns before any Land
Cruisers. However, the Crowns were found to perform poorly at the higher speeds
of American Interstates. Toyota was forced to halt passenger car importing in
1960, leaving only the Land Cruiser to bear the company's name in the United

Toyota did not make the same mistake in Australia. The first vehicles sent
there were Land Cruisers. They arrived in July 1959, and were marketed by
Theiss Sales as commercial vehicles.

Toyota began to market the Model DA60 truck, its first powered by a diesel
engine, in March 1957. However, brand loyalty was strong in Japan so Toyota was
forced to establish links to Hino Motors, a diesel truck manufacturer. Hino
would later provide the B and H series diesel engines used in Land Cruisers.

In May, 1959, Toyota do Brasil began Land Cruiser assembly in Brazil. This was
the first case of knock-down kits being assembled outside Japan. Land Cruiser
assembly started in 1963 in Venezuela, 1970 in Indonesia and Pakistan (although
Pakistanni production was terminated in 1986), and 1977 in Kenya, and 1982 in

Toyota's first exports to Europe were to Denmark, in 1964. That was quickly
followed by exports to Finland, the Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, Great
Britain, France, Italy, Austria, Greece, and finally, Germany.

It was not until 1964 that Toyota came to Canada. The first vehicles imported
were the Crown, Land Cruiser, and Publica. The Publica proved to be unsuitable
for the Canadian climate and was quickly withdrawn; however, by 1971, Toyota had
become the number one import brand in Canada.

Throughout the history of Toyota, it was the Land Cruiser that led the way into
new export markets and proved Toyota toughness.

Land Cruisers models are identified by an alphanumeric code. The code
consists of the engine series designation letter(s) and the frame desgination
number separated by a the letter "J." For example a 2 door with short wheel
base and a 2F gasoline engine would be a FJ40. There are also auxilliary
codes that follow the main model code and give further information about the
vehicle. For instance, the code FJ40LV-KCW is the vehicle mentioned above
produced between 01/75 and 07/80 with left hand drive, 4 Speed Transmission,
Hardtop, Rear "ambulance" doors, and no roll bar produced for the European
market. The extra codes are necessary because of the huge number of
variations of each vehicle offered world-wide. There were 2500 versions of
the 60 series alone. All the North American & most Australian Codes are
described later in the FAQ. The only exception to the naming convention is the
1951 BJ.

Body Styles
All Land Cruiser bodies (Except the Bundera and the 45 Wagon) are made by
Araco (Formerly Arakawa), a division of Toyota. Araco also manufactures the
interiors for Land Cruisers, Lexuses, and other Toyota cars and trucks.
Toyota manufactures the Bundera/LandCruiser II, and Gifu Body manufactured the
45 Wagon. The remainder of the vehicle (except in some cases the engines) is
manufactured at Toyota's Honsya plant (Factory code A11)

AK-10 Predecessor to the Land Cruiser
B-85 Very First Land Cruiser! Flat fenders, round rear wheel wells,
vertical front grille
25 Looks more like 40 series except with no turn signals on the fenders
round rear wheel wells and no headlight bezel
25 P Pickup version of above
28 Similar to above with a longer wheelbase
28 V Wagon version of above
35 Very similar to a 25
38 Wagon
40 2 Door with removable hard/soft top, folding windshield
41 Same as above
42 Essentially identical to 40 series
43 V Slightly Longer 40.
43 W 2 Door version of the 45 Wagon
44 2 Door even longer wheelbase 40 (40 sized side windows followed by
smaller ones
45 C Cab & Chassis
L Pick-up with square bed with tie-down loops on sides, removable
hard/soft top
S Pick-up with rounded bed with bevel on top rim like a 40.
Had fixed hardtop until approx 1964 then removable hardtop
W 4 door 40 series, permanent top.
T VERY long 2 door 40 with 2 sets of 40 style side windows on HT
46 Same as 45T except with 5 speed transmission & upgraded frame
47 V VERY long 2 door with 2 sets of 40 style side windows on HT
47 L Identical to 45 Series except with H series engine
47 C Cab & Chassis
55 Wagon with narrower appearance than 40 series. Front grille looks
like <
60 Square bodied wagon with a pair of round headlights
61 Similar to above except with a turbo
62 Square bodied wagon with 2 pairs of rectangular headlights
70 Square body 2 door with non-removable doors/hard top, sloping
windshield and fenders that are a cross of a 40 and a 60.
70 LD Light Duty (Called "Bundera" in Australia) - 70 Series with 2L-T diesel
or 22R gas engine, lighter axles used in the pickup (with the 8" ring
gear), removable hard/soft top, and coil springs.
Bundera means "Rock Wallaby" in an aboriginal language
71 Essentially identical to the 70 series.
73 Troop Carrier like 70 series with 2 doors but longer body/wheelbase
Permanent steel hard top
73 LD Longer wheelbase version of the 70 LD detailed above
74 Similar to 73 except with turbo engine
75 P Square bodied pickup with removable steel top
75 V Square bodied wagon with 2 doors and 2 windows per side in the rear
75 C Cab & Chassis
80 Current rounded wagon
90 AKA "Challenger" Not really a Land Cruiser, just a re-badged/re-bodied
IFS POS 4Runner.
MEGA Copy of a Hummer complete with gear reduction hubs, 4WS, Inboard 4
wheel disc brakes, Torsen LSD's _WITH_LOCKS_, adjustable rear tire

Availability (Model Year)
AK-10 ..... ..... ..... 42-?
B-85 ..... ..... ..... 51-54
25 ..... NA? 58-59 55-59
28 ..... ..... ..... .....
40 ??-84 60-84 60-83 60-84
42 81-84 81-84 NA 81-84
43 ..... NA NA .....
45 L ??-84 63-80% 63-67+ .....
S ..... 63-67? 63-67+ .....
W ..... 63?-68 63-67+ .....
46 ..... NA NA .....
47 81-84 NA NA .....
55 ..... 68-80 68-80 .....
60 ??-90 80-87 80-87 .....
61 86-90 NA NA .....
62 85-90 88-89 88-89 .....
70 85- 85-87 NA 85-90
LD 85-92 NA NA .....
73 85-90 NA NA .....
74 85-90 NA NA
75 P 85- 90?-# NA .....
W 85- NA NA .....
80 90- 92- 90- .....

+Some 67's were rebadged as '68's
%Industrial use only 81-89?
#Industrial use only

B-85 3835 2285 90 LF LF
25 3838 2285 90 1390/1350 LF LF
40 3680 2285 90 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1070 686 970
42 3680 2285 90 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1070 686 970
43 4038 2430 96 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1265 686 970
45 L 4760 2950 116 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1265 686 970
W 4630 2650 104 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1265 686 970
S 4651 2641 104 1404/1400 LF LF 686 970
47 4760 2950 116 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1265 686 970
55 4637 2700 106 1404/1400 LF LF 1070 1155 686 970
60 4576 2730 108 1485/1470 LF LF 1058 1160 796 1030
62 4576 2730 108 1485/1470 LF LF 1058 1160 796 1030
70 3476 2310 90 1415/1400 LF LF 1087 1156 640 940
LD 3476 2310 90 CO CO
73 1425/1420 LF LF
75 P 4995 2980 1415/1400 LF LF 1087 1156 640 940
W 4885 2980 1415/1400 LF LF 1087 1282 640 940
80 4780 2850 112 1595/1600 CO CO
MEGA 200.4 134 CO CO

*SPR LEN (Spring Length) is defined as the distance between the centrelines of
the front and rear hangers for a spring.

#HANG WID is the lateral distance between spring hangers.

Stock Curb Weights (lbs)
25 3142
40 HT 3470 3792
40 ST 3265
80 4760
MEGA 6284


Gas Engines
Gas Land Cruiser engines are manufactured by Toyota.
The F and 2F engines were also used in Toyota Forklifts.
The F engine is supposed to be based on the Chevy 225 I-6 "Cast Iron Wonder"
and some of the bottom end along with the water pump and several other
components are supposed to be interchangeable.
The main differences between the F and the 2F are the 2F's larger bore,
the F's 2 compression and 2 oil rings versus the 2F's 2 compression and single
oil ring and the fact that the F had two oil paths--through the filter or
through the engine compared to the 2F where all oil had to travel through the
filter before the engine.

Diesel Engines
Most of the diesels are made by Hino industries, a sub-contractor for Toyota.
Similar engines were used in Hino heavy trucks which are used in Canada, so
the drivetrain of Hino trucks may be adaptable. Hino engines similar to the B
and 3B are supposed to be used to run the refrigerator units on some
refrigerated semi trailers. Some of the B diesels are manufactured by
Daihatsu and can be identified by the letter "D" on the timing cover.

Most diesels in Japan and Canada are 24V and therefore meet NATO
military specs. However, Canadian 1985 (85/10) BJ70's and all Canadian
BJ60's are 12V. In Europe, all diesels larger than 4 cylinders are 24V
except for in the 80 series which uses a 24/12V Series/Parallel switch
to allow 24V starting and 12V while running. Australian diesels are all

The B, H, and 2H were also used in Toyota Forklifts, Dyna and Coaster buses.

Other Engine Suppliers
Portugese BJ73's use a VM engine made by the Italian company Stabilimenti
Meccanici VM S.p.A. South African HJ75's use an Atlantis Diesel Engine licensed
from Perkins. The Brazilian made Bandeirantes use a Mercedes diesel engine.

Engine Specifications
ID - Indirect Injection Diesel
DD - Direct Injection Diesel
T - Turbo
EFIG - Gas Electronic Fuel Injection

B (GAS) 3386 4 G 85@3600 159@???? 8 OHV 84x102 6.4:1

B 2977 4 ID 80@3600 141@2200 8 OHV 95x105 21:1
2B 3168 4 ID 93@3600? 159@2200 8 OHV 98x105 21:1
3B 3431 4 ID 90@3500 159@2200 8 OHV 102x105 20:1
13B-T 3431 4 TDD 120@3400 210@2000 8 OHV 102x105 17.6:1
15B-T 41xx 4 TDD 150@? 288@1800 8 OHV

F (-60) 3878 6 G 105@3200 189@2000 12 OHV 90x102 6.8:1
F (60-) 3878 6 G 125@3600 209@2000 12 OHV 90x102 7.5:1
2F 4230 6 G 135@3600 210@1800 12 OHV 94x102 7.8:1
3F 3955 6 G 155@4000 219@3000 12 OHV 94x95
3F-EFI 3955 6 EFIG 155@4200 220@2200 12 OHV 94x95 8.1:1

1FZ-??? 4477 6 G 138@???? Low compression engine for low grade fuel
1FZ-F 4477 6 G 190@4400 268@2800 24DOHC 100x95 9.0:1
1FZ-FE 4477 6 EFIG 212@4600 275@3000 24DOHC 100x95 9.0:1

H 3576 6 ID 90@3600 151@2200 12 OHV 88x98 21.0:1
H 3576 6 ID 95@3600 159@2200 12 OHV 88x98 19.5:1
2H 3980 6 ID 103@3500 177@2000 12 OHV 91x102 20.7:1
12H-T 3980 6 TID 135@3500 231@2000 12 OHV 91x102 18.6:1

1HD-T 4163 6 TID 165@3600 268@2000 12SOHC 94x100 18.6:1
1HD-FT 4163 6 TID 168@3600 280@2500 24SOHC 94x100 18.6:1
1HZ 4163 6 ID 135@4000 187@2200 12SOHC 94x100 22.7:1

1KZ-T 2982 4 TID 125@3600 218@2000 8 96x103 21.2:1
1KZ-TE 2982 4 EID 130@3600 213@2000 8 96x103 21.2:1

2L 2446 4 ID 72@4000 115@2200 8SOHC 92x92 22.3:1
2L-T 2446 4 TID 86@4000 139@2400 8SOHC 92x92 20.0:1
2L-TII 2446 4 TID 90@4000 159@2400 8SOHC 92x92 21.0:1

1PZ 3469 5 ID 115@4000 170@2600 10SOHC 94x100 22.7:1

22R 2367 4 G 105@4800 136@2800 8SOHC 92x89 9.0:1
22R-E 2367 4 EFIG 114@4600 192@3400 8SOHC 92x89 9.0:1

VM66A 2494 5 ID 108@4200 220@1600 10 OHC 88x92 22.0:1

ADE236 3860 DD 80@2800 220@1400 8 OHV 98x127 16.0:1

OM314 3784 DD 85@2800 235@1800 8 OHV 97x128 17.0:1
OM364 3972 DD 90@2800 235@1800 8 OHV 98x133 17.3:1

B 78-80 NA 74-80
2B 80-82
3B 81-90 81-87 NA 81-90
13B-T ??-90 NA NA 84-90

F 58?-74 58?-74 55-74
2F 75-84 75-87 74-87
3F 84-92 NA NA
3F-EFI 88-92 88-92 88-92

1FZ-FE 93- 93- 93-

2H 81-90 85-87 NA 80-90
12H-T 86-90 NA NA 86-90

1HD-T 90-95 NA NA 91-
1HD-FT 95-
1HZ 90- 95-+ NA 91-

2L 81-84 81-83 83-87
2L-T 86-93 84-85* NA 84-87

1PZ 90-93 ??91-+

22R 84-92 81-88# 81-88#

*In Toyota Diesel Pickups
#In Toyota Pickups
+Industrial Use Only

10 ..... .....
BJ 51-53 .....
25 54-59 55-59
28 ..... 58-59
V ..... 58-59
35 ..... 56-59

B 2B 3B 13B-T F 2F H 2H
40 74-78 ..... ..... ..... 60-74 74-84 ..... .....
V 74-78 ..... ..... ..... 61-74 74-84 ..... .....
41 ..... 79-81 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
42 ..... ..... 81-84 ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
43 74-81 ..... 81-84 ..... 60-74 74-84 ..... .....
44 ..... 79-81 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
V ..... 80-81 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
45 C ..... ..... 81-84 ..... 61-74 74-86 72-80 .....
45 L ..... ..... 81-84 ..... 61-74 74-85 72-80 .....
S ..... ..... ..... ..... 61-74 74-85 ..... .....
W ..... ..... ..... ..... 60-68 ..... ..... .....
46 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... .....
47 L ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 80-85
47 C ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 80-84
55 W ..... 79-80 ..... ..... 67-74 74-79 ..... .....

3B 13B-T 2F 3F-EFI 2H
60 81-89 ..... 80-84 ..... .....
61 86-89
62 85-89 80-89

3B 13B-T 15B-T 2F 3F-EFI 1FZ-FE 2H 12H-T 1HD-T 1HD-FT 1HZ 1PZ
70 84-89 ..... ..... 84-85 85-92 93- ..... ..... 90- ...... 93- 90-
71 ..... 87-89 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... 93- ...
72 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... .... ...
73 84-89 ..... ..... 84-85 85-93 93- ..... ..... 90- ...... 93- 90-
74 ..... 87-89 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... .... ...
75 84-89 ..... ..... ..... 85-92 93- 85-89 ..... 90- ...... .... 90-
77 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... 90- ...... 93- 90-
78 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... 93- ...
80 ..... ..... ..... ..... 90-92 93- ..... ..... 90- 95- 90- ...
MEGA ..... ..... 95- ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...... .... ...

2L 2L-T 2L-T-II 1KZ-T 1KZ-TE 22R 22R-E
70 LD 84-86 86-90 90- ..... ..... 84-88 88-
71 LD ..... ..... 91-93 ..... ..... ..... ...
72 LD ..... 86-90 90-93 ..... ..... ..... ...
73 LD ..... 88-90 90- ..... ..... ..... 88-
77 LD 90-93 ..... ..... ..... ..... ..... ...
78 LD ..... ..... 91-93 ..... ..... ..... ...

Performance/Fuel Economy
0-100km/h Fuel Ecomomy (l/100km)
BJ40 4SPD 4.11 diff 29.9s 13.0
BJ42 4SPD 4.11 diff 24.4s 13.7
FJ40 4SPD 3.70 diff 18.7s 18.6
FJ60 4SPD 3.70 diff 16.3s 17.4
HJ60 4SPD 3.70 diff 22.7s 12.5

Transmissions & Transfer Cases
The H4X transmissions used with the gas engies use a 275mm clutch and have an
output shaft that is 1-1/16" in diameter and has 10 splines. H41
transmissions were never offered on US model Cruisers but may have been
available in some Canadian 45 series pickups. The transmissions for B diesels
use a 1-1/2" longer input shaft with different splines and will not mate to
either an F or H series engine.

When the four speed was introduced in 1974, the transfer case ratio was
raised and new helical cut gears were used that were wider and quieter
than the earlier model. Until 1981, parking brake was mounted on the
driveline after the transfer cases. In 1981, the new split-case
transfer case was introduced. It featured a stronger idler shaft and
the parking brake was moved to become part of the rear drum brakes.

Transmission & Transfer Case Ratios (All :1)
?FJ25? F 4 5.41 3.12 1.77 1.000 5.44 NONE SPLINES
J30 F 69-75 3 2.757 1.691 1.000 3.676 2.313 10
H41 F 4 4.925 2.643 1.519 1.000 4.925 1.992 16
H41? B 75-80 4 5.299 2.843 1.634 1.000 5.299 1.959 16
H42 F,B 73-75 4 3.555 2.292 1.410 1.000 4.271 1.992 16
75-80 4 3.555 2.292 1.410 1.000 4.271 1.959 16
81-82 4 3.555 2.292 1.410 1.000 4.271 2.276 19
H55F F,B 83- 5 4.843 2.619 1.516 1.000 0.845 4.843 1.959 19
H150F HZ 5 4.529 2.464 1.490 1.000 0.881 4.313 2.488
H151F FZ,HD 5 4.081 2.294 1.490 1.000 0.881 4.313 2.488
A440F 3 2.488
A442F FZ,HD 4 2.950 1.530 1.000 0.765 2.678 2.488
???? L, 2L 5 3.928 2.333 1.451 1.000 0.851 4.743 2.276
150R 2L-T 5 4.313 2.330 1.436 1.000 0.838 4.220 2.295
???? 2L-T, 1KZ-T 5 3.830 2.062 1.436 1.000 0.838 4.220 2.296
???? 1KZ-T, 1KZ-TE 5 3.830 2.062 1.436 1.000 0.838 4.220 1.959

Regular Land Cruiser axle housings are similar to a Ford 9" and differential
carriers are similar in construction to a Chevy 12bolt. The front and rear
differential housings are both offset to the right in all models except some
'58-62's which were centred. They have an 9.5" ring gear. The axle shafts
are 33mm in diameter (the same as a some Dana 60's) 1960-67 shafts had
10 coarse splines while 68 and later shafts have 30 fine splines. In
1968, the front axle CV joints changed from ball joints to Birfield.
Full Floating Axles have smaller shafts because the entire weight of the
truck is bourne by the wheel bearings and the shaft itself is not loaded
in flexure.

Light Duty axle housings are the same as those used in Toyota Pickup trucks.
They feature a smaller housing constructed similarly to the heavy duty Land
Cruiser. The ring gear is only 8" but the axle shafts are the same size and
have the same number of splines as the regular Land Cruiser.

All Land Cruisers produced after 1991 use the 8" ring gear in the front and the
9.5" ring gear in the rear.

60/2 Series axles are 70mm wider than 40 series
70 Series axles are 20mm wider than 40 series

Example: K 08 2
^ ^^ ^-2 pinions!?
| ++---4.11 ring/pinion ratio
+------9.5" ring gear

First digit: ring gear size
G 8"
J 9.25"
K 9.5"

Second, third digits: ring/pinion gear ratio

01 3.30
02 3.36
03 3.545
04 3.556
05 3.70 HD Cruiser
06 3.889
07 3.90 HD Cruiser
08 4.111 HD Cruiser
09 4.222
10 4.375
11 4.444
12 4.625
13 4.79
14 4.875 LD Cruiser
15 5.125
16 5.286
17 5.60
18 5.714
19 5.833
20 6.167
21 6.667
22 6.78
23 6.833
24 7.64
25 4.556 LD Cruiser, Aftermarket HD Cruiser
26 5.571
27 3.364
28 4.30 LD Cruiser
29 4.10
30 3.727 HD Cruiser
31 3.909
32 6.591 or 5.583
33 7.503 or 5.583
34 6.781 or 4.786
35 7.636 or 5.60
36 4.778
37 3.583
38 3.417
4.88 Aftermarket HD Cruiser

Fourth digit: no of pinions, ltd slip-yes/no

Code pinions
2 2 open
3 2 LS
4 4 Locking Diff
5 4 LS

Production Codes

AUS Australia
CAN Canada
NA North America
USA ? :)

5F 5 Speed Manual
4F 4 Speed Manual
IV Incomplete Vehicle (Usually Cab/Chassis Only)
SOB Swing Out Back Door
LUB Lift Up Back Door
RB Roll Bar
PU Pickup
ST Soft Top
SRF Low Roof
HRF High Roof

LV-KCJK B 3/78-7/80 CAN 4F SOB RB

LV-KCJK 3B 8/80-10/82 CAN 4F SOB RB
LV-MCJK 3B 10/82-10/84 CAN 5F SOB RB
RV-KCQ 3B 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F SOB RB
RV-MCQ 3B 10/82-10/84 AUS 5F SOB

LV-KK 3B 8/80-10/81 CAN 4F
LG-KK 3B 10/81-10/82 CAN 4F
LG-MK 3B 10/82-10/85 CAN 5F

LV-MRK 3B 11/84-8/86 CAN 5F 12V LX
LV-MNK 3B 8/86-7/87 CAN 5F LX
RV-MRQ 3B 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F HT

RV-MRQ 3B 11/84-8/86 AUS 5F HT
RV-MRQ 2B 8/86-1/90 AUS 5F HT LX

RV-PRXQ 13BT 10/85-8/86 AUS AUTO HT
RV-MNXQ 13BT 8/86-1/90 AUS 5F HT L
RV-MRXQ 13BT 10/85-8/86 AUS 5F HT

L-A F 3/69-1/75 NA ST
LV-A F 3/69-1/75 NA HT LUB
LV-AC F 4/72-1/75 NA HT SOB
L-KJA 2F 1/75-2/76 NA ST RB
L-KJA 2F 2/76-7/80 USA 4F ST RB
L-KJA 2F 8/80-10/81 USA 4F ST RB
LV-KCJA 2F 1/75-2/76 NA 4F HT SOB
LV-KCJA 2F 2/76-7/80 NA 4F HT SOB RB
LV-KCJA 2F 8/80-9/83 USA 4F SOB RB
LV-KJA 2F 2/76-7/80 NA 4F HT
LV-KCJK 2F 2/76-7/80 CAN 4F HT SOB RB
LV-KCJK 2F 8/80-10/81 CAN 4F HT SOB RB
LV-KJK 2F 2/76-9/77 CAN 4F ST
KJA 2F 8/80-11/81 NA
LV-KCJA 2F 8/80-9/83 NA
LV-KCJK 2F 8/80-10/81 CAN
R-KJC 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F ST
R-MJQ 2F 10/82-10/84 AUS 5F ST
RV-KQ 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F LUB
RV-KCQ 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F SOB
RV-MCQ 2F 10/82-10/84 AUS 5F SOB
RV-KCQ 2F 8/80-10/84 AUS 4F TROOP SOB

LP-KK 2F 6/76-7/80 CAN 4F PU
R-KJQ 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F PU ST
RP-KQ 2F 8/80-10/84 AUS 4F PU
RP-KQ3 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F PU IV

LG F 3/69-1/75 NA
LG-KA 2F 1/75-2/76 NA 4F
LG-KA 2F 2/76-7/80 USA 4F
LG-KK 2F 2/76-7/80 CAN 4F

LV-KK 2F 8/80-10/81 CAN 4F
LG-KA 2F 8/80-8/87 NA 4F 'G'
LV-KA 2F 9/86-8/87 USA 4F
RG-KQ 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MQ 2F 10/82-11/84 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MZQ 2F 5/83-11/84 AUS 5F HRF LUB 'G'
RV-KCQ 2F 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F SRF SOB
RV-MCQ 2F 10/82-11/84 AUS 5F SRF SOB

LV-PNEA 3F-E 8/87-8/88 USA AUTO
LG-PNEA 3F-E 8/87-1/90 USA AUTO 'G'
LG-PNEK 3F-E 8/87-1/90 CAN AUTO 'G'
RG-MQ 3F 11/84-8/87 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MZQ 3F 11/84-8/87 AUS 5F HRF LUB 'G'
RG-PQ 3F 11/84-8/87 AUS AUTO SRF LUB 'G'
RG-PZQ 3F 11/84-8/87 AUS AUTO HRF LUB 'G'
RG-MRCQ 3F 8/87-1/90 AUS 5F SRF SOB
RG-MNQ 3F 8/87-1/90 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-PNQ 3F 8/87-1/90 AUS AUTO SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MNZQ 3F 8/87-8/88 AUS 5F HRF LUB 'G'
RG-MEZQ 3F 8/88-1/90 AUS 5F HRF LUB VX
RV-MCQ 3F 11/84-8/87 AUS 5F SRF SOB
RV-PCQ 3F 11/84-10/85 AUS 5F SRF SOB

RV-MRQ 3F 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F HT

RV-MRQ 3F 11/84-8/86 AUS 5F HT
RV-PRQ 3F 10/85-8/86 AUS AUTO HT
RV-MNQ 3F 8/86-1/90 AUS 5F HT LX
RV-MNQ 3F 1/90-8/91 AUS 5F HT LX
RV-PNQ 3F 8/86-1/90 AUS AUTO HT LX
RV-MEQ 3F 8/86-8/88 AUS 5F HT VX
RV-PEQ 3F 8/86-1/90 AUS AUTO HT VX

RV-MRQ 3F 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F HT TROOP
RV-MRQ 3F 1/90-8/92 AUS 5F HT TROOP
RP-MRQ3 3F 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F PIC IV
RP-MRQ3 3F 1/90-8/92 AUS 5F IV

L-GNPNEA 3F-E 1/90-8/92 NA AUTO
R-GCMRSQ 3F 1/90-8/92 AUS 5F SOB
R-GNMNSQ 3F 1/90-8/92 AUS 5F LUB GXL

R-GCMRKQ 1FZ-FE 8/92-1/95 AUS 5F SOB

RV-KCQ 2H 8/80-10/84 AUS 4F TROOP SOB
RP-KQ 2H 8/80-10/84 AUS 4F PIC
RP-KQ3 2H 8/80-10/84 AUS 4F PIC IV

LG-MK 2H 10/85-8/87 CAN 5F
LG-PK 2H 10/85-8/87 CAN AUTO
RG-KQ 2H 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MQ 2H 10/82-8/87 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MNQ 2H 8/87-1/90 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MRCQ 2H 8/87-1/90 AUS 5F SRF SOB
RG-MZQ 2H 5/83-10/85 AUS 5F HRF LUB 'G'
RG-PQ 2H 11/84-10/85 AUS AUTO SRF LUB 'G'
RG-PZQ 2H 11/84-8/87 AUS AUTO HRF LUB 'G'
RV-KCQ 2H 8/80-10/82 AUS 4F SRF SOB
RV-MCQ 2H 10/82-8/87 AUS 5F SRF SOB
RV-PCQ 2H 11/84-10/85 AUS AUTO SRF SOB

RG-MXQ 12HT 10/85-8/87 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MZXQ 12HT 10/85-8/87 AUS 5F HRF LUB 'G'
RG-PXQ 12HT 10/85-8/87 AUS AUTO SRF LUB 'G'
RG-PZXQ 12HT 10/85-8/87 AUS AUTO HRF LUB 'G'
RG-MNXQ 12HT 8/87-1/90 AUS 5F SRF LUB 'G'
RG-MNZXQ 12HT 8/87-8/88 AUS 5F HRF LUB 'G'

RV-MRQ 2H 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F HT TROOP
RV-RRQ 2H 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F HT PIC
RV-MRQ3 2H 11/84-1/90 AUS 5F HT PIC IV


RV-MRQ 1HZ 1/90-1/95 AUS 5F HT

RV-MNQ 1HZ 1/90-8/91 AUS 5F HT LX

RP-MRQ 1HZ 1/90- AUS 5F IV
RP-MRQ3 1HZ 1/90- AUS 5F IV



RV-MRQ 1PZ 1/90-5/93 AUS 4F HT
RV-MNQ 1PZ 1/90-5/93 AUS 5F HT LX

R-MRQ 22R 11/84-8/88 AUS 5F ST BUNDERA
RV-MRQ 22R 11/84-8/86 AUS 5F HT BUNDERA
RV-MEQ 22R 11/84-8/86 AUS 5F HT BUNDERA VX

Body Colour Codes
012 Cygnus White
113 Health Grey
309 Freeborn Red 79-84
414 Buffalo Brown
415 Pueblo Brown
416 Dune Beige
464 Beige
474 Dark Copper
4G8 Light Beige Irrid.
611 Dark Green
621 Rustic Green (Dark)
622 Nebula Green
653 Olive Green
681 Green
808 Horizontal Blue
822 Royal Blue
854 Blue (sky blue)
857 Nordic Blue/Feel Like Blue (dark blue)

Decoding your ID plates
I'll describe the various ID plate types with their usual location in brackets.
Keep in mind, I've only seen North American plates so yours may be quite

Pre-1974 ID Plate (Fender)
|O T O Y O T A O|
| ~~~ BORE 3.54 in |
| STROKE 4.00 in |
| NO. FJ40-000000 |

1974+ FJ55 (FENDER)
|O T O Y O T A O|
| ENGINE 2F 4230cc/ |
| FRAME No. FJ55-86909 |

40 Series Specific Info

Production Timeline (US/Canada)
1960 F 3-on the tree 2.313:1 Start of prodution
Small round FR turn signals
Single brake master cyl resevoir
1963 3 on the floor (Option)
1964 Flip-up roof vent removed
1965 Larger side windows and corner
windows added
1968 30 fine spline axles replace 10 coarse

Birfield joints replace ball joints in FR
Siamese centre exhaust ports replaced
One piece manifold gasket added
Cable throttle linkage replaces rod
Padded Dash fs
Vin plate on door pillars
1969 "Improved" steering centre arm
Small Rectangular FR turn signals
Replaceable element oil filter replaced
with cartridge type (03/69)
1970 Dual resevoir master cyl
Dual horns
1971 Power Brakes (07/70)
1972 3 on the floor STD Smog pump appears (09/72)
1973 Separate model for Calif introduced (09/73)
EGR system added (09/73)
Saftey catch added on hood
Ignition switch moved to steering
Factory AM radio
Stronger steering box
1974 2F 4 SPD 1.999:1 Larger universal joints & flanges
Rectangular RR brake lights/turn signals
RR lower shock bolt moves from axle to U-
bolt bracket
Clutch changed from coil spring type to
diaphragm (08/74)
Longest production run of any LC (9/73-
1975 1.959:1 Thicker side doors
Ambulance doors replace lift/tailgate
LG Square FR Turn Signals/side markers
Wipers move to bottom of windshield
Muffler moved from between frame
rails to under rear tub
1976 FR disk brakes
Larger brifields
Front outer axle shafts changed from 10
coarse splines to 30 fine splines
Front spindles and bearings enlarged
1977 Tubular spare tire mount (09/76)
Pop-out rear windows (08/76)
1978 2F,B Diesel comes to Canada
Fine spline pinion flange (1/78)
1979 3.73:1 Diff becomes standard on FJ
22 gal under-floor fuel tank
Improved exhaust manifold
Power steering
Air conditioning
Reclining Seats
Catalytic converter
Fewer, larger body mounts
Squared off headlight bezel
1981 2F,3B 2.276 3B comes to Canada
Larger shackles, hangers & frame gussets
Split case transfer case
New RR brakes with 11.8" drums and single
self-adjusting wheel cylinder (8/80)
Parking brake moved from rear of TFR to
rear drums
Warn front hubs replaced with stainless
steel Aisin units
Front outer axle shafts shortened
Rear heater moves under center console
"Shield" shaped steering wheel centre
Locking "Pocket"
Chrome window weather stripping replaced
with rubber
1983 5SPD 1.959 Dash re-designed & includes digital clock
Chrome outer door felt replaced with
1984 Production CEASES! :(

Although production of the 40 Series Land Cruiser stopped in 1984, there is
still a _COPY_ in production. It is manufactured in Brazil and is called a
Bandeirante. It features a body/frame which is a copy of a Land Cruiser and
is powered by a Mercedes diesel motor.

55 Series Specific Info

Many of the changes on the 40 series timeline also apply to 55 series.

80 Series Specific Info

Full time 4wd
All 80 series Cruisers sold in North America and Europe are full time 4wd. In
Africa and Australia, a part-time system is still available. 80's produced
between '90-'91 have an open center differential which is lockable in 4HI and
automatically locked in 4LO. From '92 on, vehicles with ABS had a viscous
coupling that sent a maximum of 30% torque the non-slipping axle. The
differential is lockable in 4HI and automatically locked in 4LO.

Locking Differentials
Locking differentials were available as options in all 80 series. From 94 on,
they were standard in Canada. The operation of the lockers is very elegant.
When the differential lock dial is turned to the "Locked" position, it switches
on a small electrical servo. The servo pushes on a dog clutch which is meshed
with the splines on the axle shaft. The dog clutch slides along the axle shaft
and engages on the side of the differential carrier. The axle is then
completely locked. They were offered from the procuction date 8/92 onwards.

Buying a Land Cruiser

NOTE: This article is biased towards 40 series Land Cruisers, although it can
be applied any model. Also, parts of this may sound a little like a sermon.
This is because for me Land Cruiser ownership goes beyond possesing a vehicle
and well into the realm of the occult. Are YOU willing to sacrifice you life
for your Land Cruiser?

So you want to buy a Land Cruiser. First, some words of warning. If you're looking
at a 40 series, the vehicle will be at least 11 years old. It was built as an
offroad vehicle and as a result has probably taken alot more of a beating than a
car of a similar vintage. It will definitely require more upkeep than a new

With all Land Cruisers, newer is definitely better. Unlike the Jeeps whose
"quality" varied widely from year to year until Chysler "neutered" them all and
Land Rovers where some Series are shunned because their headlights are in the
wrong place, Toyota was continually improving the Land Cruiser. Check the
production timelines earlier in the FAQ to determine which features you can live
without and hence how old you're willing to go. The only exception to this rule
is if you're living under a fascist regime such as Kalifornia where ancient
frames are prized for their smog exempt status.

Usually long before someone decides to sell a Cruiser, they decide that they
should stop pouring money into it. Therefore, shortly after you purchase your
truck you can expect to have to dump a whole lot of money into it to fix little
things the previous owner couldn't be bothered to do. This can be VERY
discouraging. Don't worry. Once you get your truck into a roadworthy state, it
will remain there for quite some time. When I first got my truck, the fuel
gauge didn't work, most of the knobs were missing, the headlights had a nasty
habit of turning off instead of switching to high-beam, none of the interior or
signal lights worked, the u-bolt plates were cracked, the shackle pins were
about to rip out of the shackle plates, the rear tub was basically gone, along
with the bottom 2" of the hard top and rear doors.

Older Land Cruisers (Anything other than a 60 or 80) make lousy daily drivers.
They're loud, they suffer from a relatively harsh ride and vague-on road
handling, and the gas ones get lousy fuel economy. Thanks to brick-like
aerodynamics, side-winds quickly become tail-winds. You don't want to commute
in an FJ40.

Anyways, that said, there are some requirements that I believe a Land Cruiser
owner should meet. They need to have a steady income. I bought my Cruiser
while I was in university and wound up having to take a couple of years off to
work to be able to fix it up. If you're a starving student, you're probably
better off with a mini-truck. Parts are cheaper, and there's a whole lot more
of them so they're more "disposable"

If you've got a significant other, your relationship has to be up to the
stresses imposed by the new arrival. It took a long time for my girlfriend to
adjust to being a "Land Cruiser widow" If a Land Cruiser is brought into a weak
relationship, there's always the chance you won't get to keep the house--then
you'd be without a garage to work in.

Actually, a garage is pretty much required. Lying out in the street is
hazardous and people tend to walk off with tools they find lying on the

I also firmly believe that you should do EVERYTHING on your Cruiser AT LEAST
ONCE. If you have a professional mechanic attend to all you maintenance, you'll
be out of luck when something goes wrong miles from the nearest gas station

So you've warned anyone that cares about you that you'll never see them again,
and their only contact with you will be standing in the garage yelling at the
underside of your truck. You're mentally prepared to become the caretaker of a
disappearing breed. Time to go shopping.

You should start scanning the local classified ads for a couple of months before
you actually begin to shop in earnest. That way, you can begin to check out the
local price-structure. In certain parts of the U.S. and Eastern Canada, you may
only see one Cruiser a week, if that. Once you learn that the most ancient
truck costs more money than you have, you're ready to start making calls.

When you finally locate a truck, it's time to go for a look. The things you
should watch for can be grouped into several categories.

I'm not a fan of gas truck engines, so I can't offer too much help here. I've
heard that the intake manifold tends to crack if the truck has been overheated.

In a diesel, start by checking for coolant leaks from the hoses, water pump,
and radiator. Next check for oil leaks from around the pushrod inspection plate
that the blow-by tube comes from, the gasket between the oil pan and the block,
and the vaccum pump if so equipped.

When the engine is fired up, watch how quickly the oil pressure builds. If the
idle is high (the engine feels smooth instead of causing the whole truck to
shake) There's probably either a hole in the diaphragm or the vaccum lines that
go to it. Both are relatively cheap and easy to replace provided you buy
Nippondenso and not Toyota parts.

It is normal for a cold diesel to blow a little white smoke at start-up. Black
smoke usually means that the injectors need service, white smoke indicates
over-injection of diesel (probably due to a perforated diaphragm), and blue smoke
shows that oil heavier than diesel is burning (Ohh ohh!) When the truck is running,
check for excessive exhaust coming out of the blow-by tube. The amount of
blow-by will indicate the amount of wear in the engine.

In both gas and diesel Cruisers, check the alternator for excessive play. A
brand new onw is worth a small fortune. Rebuilt 12V ones are difficult to find
and 24V ones are virtually impossible.

If you find that there are accessories (radio etc. attached to only one battery
of a 24V diesel, you can expect to replace the battery shortly.

Check for leaks in all the gaskets and seals. Chances are, if a seal is leaking,
the bearing behind it is shot. Ask the owner what kind of lubricant they're
using. Synthetic gear oil will often manage to seep past a seal that's good
enough for regular oil.

Check for lateral play in the output yokes from the transfer case. Movement
intdicates bearings that are in need of replacement.

If a 40 series has been lifted more than 2", check to make sure that the notch
in the skid plate the front drive shaft passes through has been enlarged.
Otherwise, the rearmost yoke on the front driveshaft will bang on the plate
causing the bearings in the transfer case to fail.

With the truck parked on a level surface, take out the transmission fill plug.
If gear oil pours out of the plug, the seal between the transfer case and
transmission is probably shot. This is a cheap part, but replacing it pretty
much requires pulling the transfer and transmission.

A leak from the rear output flange of the transfer usually results in destroyed
parking brake shoes in pre-1981 transfer cases.

Check for play in the universal joints. Although a worn joint is cheap to fix,
if the truck has been driven with the excessive vibration of a failed joint for
any length of time, the transfer case and pinion bearings can suffer. Dents in
the shafts can also cause vibrations and premature failure. Check that the
univeral joints and slip-joints have been greased, but NOT just prior to your
arrival. (There should be SOME dirt stuck to any traces of grease on the
zerk-fittings or around the joints)

Rear Axle
Check the pinion flange for excessive play. Usually slop here will result in an
a destroyed ring and pinion.

Pull off the drums and check for any signs of oil leaking from the seals at the
ends of the axle tubes. Seized adjustors are an indicator of an owner that
didn't properly maintain their vehicle.

It is rare for a Cruiser to experience wheel bearing failure unless they've
REALLY been abused.

Front axle
The above rules for checking the pinion bearings apply along with some potential
problems for the steering knuckles. Check that there is a thin coating of
grease covering the knuckle balls from top to bottom. If there is excessive
crud on the knuckles, the seals are probably shot. If the balls are dry,
they've been run improperly lubricated for quite a while and at least the upper
knuckle bearings will be destroyed. The age-old test of rocking the wheel back
and forth to test for play can be used to check the knuckle-bearings as they are
far more likely to go than the wheel bearings.

In manual steering Cruisers, check for gear oil in the steering box by removing
the breather vent. If there is none, the pitman-arm seal has failed and the
bearings are probably almost gone. If there is grease in the steering box, the
seal has failed, and the owner has at least tried to extend the life of the
steering box. It may be salvagable, but pulling the pitman arm to replace the
seal is very, very difficult.

Have someone rock the steering wheel back and forth through a 45 degree arc
while you inxpect the steering box and centre arm (on 40's-55's) The centre arm
should rotate with no sign of "wobbling" If the steering tends to "stay where
it's left" while driving rather than returning to centre, the seller has
probably cranked up the centre arm to try to hide slop.

Replacing worn tie-rod ends is relatively easy, but ensure that there's only
play in the ball joint and not in the threads between the rod and the end. This
will require replacing the rods themselves.

This is probably where you'll find the greatest variance in Land Crusiers. Some
trucks are pristine and have been hermetically sealed in their garages all
winter, whereas some have been used to launch boats in the ocean. The former
will have a body. The latter won't.

The problem areas for 40 series are: (probable order of occurence)

-along the seam between the sides of the body and the tops of the fenders in
the rear
-under the back doors
-the "box section" that runs under the door sills
-the lower edges of all doors
-on the fenders around the turn signals
-on the fenders where the support brackets from the frame attach
-along the sill that runs down in front of the doors
-the windshield frame under the rubber gasket
-the lower edge of the hard top and the steel drain sill under the fibreglass

The problem areas for the 60's and 70's are
-the lip around the fender wells
-the lower edges of all the doors
-the rear quarter panels
-under the rubber gasket around the windshield
-under the mud flaps

Drivetrain Swaps

Non-Toyota Equipment

There is really no limit as to the complexity of swaps you can attempt with a
Land Cruiser. The most common modifactions are swapping engines and
transmissions. Let me begin by saying that I am not a big fan of putting
non-Toyota equipment into Land Cruisers. I only decided to write this section
because I got tired of people asking me about swaps and not being able to
provide any answers. This section is incomplete and will probably remain that
way for quite some time until fans of the various engines supply me with more
info. Also, because I do not have first hand experience with anything in this
section, the chances of me makin errors is greater. If you have a functioning
2F in your truck, I would leave well-enough alone. The engine is VERY heavy
duty, makes good low-end torque, will never overheat provided your cooling
system is in good shape. An older F is potentially a better candidate to be
removed and replaced with a more modern setup. It should be noted that once you
pull the F series motor from your truck, it is no longer a FJ40/55/60. I prefer
the designation of V8J40. I will talk about engine swaps retaining a Toyota
transmission, transmission swaps retaining a Toyota engine, swaping in a new
engine and transmission simultaneously, and finally, I'll touch on transfer case
and axle swaps.

Diesel Engine Swaps
I'm starting here because to me this is the swap that makes the most sense for a
rock-crawling machine and is probably the least explored. As you'll figure out
shortly, I'm pretty opinionated on this one and I welcome anyone to dispute my
views. I believe that diesel engines are superior to gas ones for offroad use
for many reasons. They tend to make usable torque at much lower engine speed
than gas engines. This means you don't need nearly as low a crawl gear. They
also feature a much flatter torque curve. There is no ignition system to fail
because of moisture. They are not as affected by altitude, in fact, turbocharged
diesels are virtually immune to altitude. In most cases, even though they have
all the advantages of a fuel injected engine, such as the ability to run at
extreme angles, they rely on mechanical injection which is considerably simpler
than electonic injection. Diesel engines also tend to get much better fuel
economy and greater cruising range than gas engines of similar displacement.

There are two commonly available engines that are suitable for swapping into
Land Cruisers. The most easily obtained is the GM 6.2l diesel. It was offered
in Chev/GMC Pickups, Suburbans, and full-size Tahoes. A conversion kit is
available from Mark's Adapters in Australia to mate a GM diesel to a Land
Cruiser 4 speed manual or automatic transmission. The GM V8 weighs approximately
the same as the 2F(?)

A rarer engine that I see as being a better match to a Land Cruiser is a Cummins
B3.9 litre turbo diesel. This engine makes 120hp and xxx ft-lbs of torque. It
was used in Ford E350 cube vans. Although a conversion kit is not readily
available, I have heard of a local shop performing this conversion. Further
investigation is definitely warranted.

I think the Cummins B5.9, as used in Dodge Ram is definitely too heavy to put
dinto a 40 series, and is probably too heavy for a 55/60/80 series.

Cummins Engine Specs
4BT3.9 39xx 4 TID 105 260 705 30.1 35.6
4BTA3.9 39xx 4 TIDA 120 302 725 30.1 35.6
6BT5.9 59xx 6 TID 160 400 880 39.6 36.8
6BTA5.9 59xx 6 TIDA 180 451 905 40.7 36.8

Diesel GM Specs
5.7L 57xx V8 ID ..... ...... ......
6.2L -94 62xx V8 ID 150 250@2500 ......
6.5L 94- 65xx V8 ID 170 290@2000 ......
6.5LT 94- 65xx V8 TID 190 385@1700 ......

ID - Indirect Injection Diesel
DD - Direct Injection Diesel
T - Turbo
A - Aftercooled (erroniously called Intercooled by most)

Gas Engine Conversions
Ok, you've put up with my compression-ignitionist rantings for a while and have
made it into the section that interests most people. There are some advantages
to replacing your F series motor with a newer V8. The V8 weighs 250lb less than
the F, which leads to a big improvement in your power to weight ratio. Because
the newer motor is a little more effecient, and also because of the weight
savings, you will get improved fuel economy. The engine that is most commonly
swapped into a Land Cruiser is the venerable Chev 350. Other conversions, in
approximate decreasing order of quantity are Chev 307, 383, 305, 400, 327, Ford
302/5.0l, Chev 454, Pontiac 455, Chev 4.3l V6. Swapping a Chev 235 I6 into a
Cruiser is pointless because it is basically identical to an F. The Chev 292
may be a worthwhile swap for those who want that "authentic straight-six feel"
Unfortunately, this engine is quite fuel hungry like the 2F and parts aren't
nearly as common as for the 350.

Even though distributor placement at the front of Ford engines is probably
better than the rear placement of Chev small block distributors, and the Ford
302 weighs 80lb. less than a 350, Chev engines are probably used ten times more
frequently. The big reason is parts availability. While ford was wandering
around in Windsor and Cleveland, the 350 changed very little over the years.

For that reason, a plain 350 is probably the easiest choice for an engine conversion. There are a variety of conversion
kits available and the engine can be found in both carburated and fuel injected
forms. For those looking for more low-end torque, a 383 is probably the best
choice. A 383 is a 350 that's been bored .030 over and uses a 400 crank and 350
connecting rods. A 383 is superior to a 400 because the bore of the 400 is too
large. There's no space left between the cylinders for water jackets so cooling
is compromised.

There are only a couple of reasons for putting a motor bigger than a 383 or even
building a high horsepower 350. They are if you intend to drive your truck in
mud or sand, or if you never quite managed to get that adolescent desire to try
to peel your tires off your rims out of your system.

On the other side of the coin, the 4.3l Chev 6 is probably a little too small
for even a 40 series.

Key engine design features to keep in mind are the bore and stroke. Engines
with a larger bore than stroke (oversquare) are better suited to high-RPM
operation, while engines with a larger stroke than bore are better for lugging
down at low RPMs. A longer stroke also allows for a lower compression ratio and
lower octane fuel.

Once you have decided which engine you want to use, the next step is to choose
an adapter type. Depending on the engine you have selected, you can either
use a bellhousing from Advance Adapters, a Ranger torque splitter, or a Mark's

In order to use an Advance Adapter bellhousing, the flywheel from the engine
manufacturer must be used. In the case of small block engines, the
manufacturer's heavier truck type flywheel is required and is advantageous
because it will allow for smoother operation of the engine at lower revs. The
advantage of using an Advance Adapter bellhousing is the low cost of the adapter
itself. This savings leads to higher expenses elsewhere though. Because the
Advance Adapter bellhousing is approximately the same thickness as the stock
Toyota one, the engine, transmission, and transfercase will have to be shifted
forward to all sufficient firewall clearance. The movement of the transfercase
will require modified driveshafts. The use of the Advance Adapter bellhousing
will also require a custom clutch only offered by Advance Adapters. It's
probably best not to use a clutch that is not univerally available.

The use of a Ranger Torque Splitter provides several advantages. Foremost, you
get a 27% overdrive for lower revs on the highway. You can use a stock
Chev/Ford bellhousing and clutch. The Torque splitter functions as an adapter.
it can be ordered with Chev or Ford bolt and inputshaft patterns on the front
and Toyota input shaft patterns on the back. Finally, the 7-8" of extra
thickness of the Ranger means that driveshaft modifications are not required.
The Ranger is said to put the fan a little closer to the radiator than ideal

The third option is the Mark's adapter. Their kit consists of a bellhousing and
flywheel that are 3-1/2" deeper than stock. The extra depth places the engine
perfectly with no driveshaft modifications. The extra thick flywheel also
provides extra damping to allow for smoothly lugging down the revs in the rocks.

GM Engine specs
231 B ..... .... V6 G ..... ........ .....
252 B ..... .... V6 G ..... ........ .....
235 C ..... .... I6 G 120-150 ........ .....
250 CPOB ..... .... I6 G ..... ........ .....
262 75-76 .... I6 G 110 ........ 8.5:1
265 55-57 .... V6 G 162-225 ........ 8.0:1
265 C 94- 4343 V6 G 163 ........ .....
265 C(HO) 94- 4343 V6 G 200 ........ .....
267 C 79-81 .... V6 G 115-125 ........ .....
283 C 57-67 .... V8 G 135-230 ........ 8.5:1-11.0:1
292 C ..... .... I6 G ....... ........ .....
302 C 67-69 .... V8 G 290 ........ 11.0:1
305 C 76-94 .... V8 G 125-230 ........ 8.5-9.0
307 C 68-73 .... V8 G 115-195 240@2000 8.5-9.0
327 C 62-69 .... V8 G 150-235 ........ 8.8-11.3
327FI C .... V8 EFI-G 370
350 C 67- .... V8 G 145-300 300@2000 8.5-11.0
350 C ..... .... V8 EFI-G ....... ........ .......
383 C NEVER .... V8 G ....... ........ .......
400 C 70-80 .... V8 G 150-180 ........ 8.5-9.0
454 C ..... .... V8 G ....... ........ .......
455 P ..... .... V8 G ....... ........ .......
500 V ..... .... V8 G ....... ........ .......

(IN) (IN) (LBS) (IN) (IN)
235 C 3.56 3.96
262 C 3.671 3.10 ...... ...... ......
265 C 3.730 3.00 550 25 26-1/2
267 C 3.500 3.48 ...... ...... ......
283 C 3.875 3.00 550 25 26-1/2
302 C 4.000 3.00 550 25 26-1/2
305 C 3.736 3.48 ...... ...... ......
307 C 3.875 3.25 550 25 26-1/2
327 C 4.000 3.25 ...... ...... ......
350 C 4.000 3.48 550 25 26-1/2
400 C 4.125 3.75 550 25 26-1/2

B - Buick
C - Chev
O - Oldsmobile
P - Pontiac
V - Cadillac

Ford Engine Specs
260 V8 G 164@4400 258@2200 8.8:1
289 64- V8 G 200-271 282-312 9.3:1
300 4916 I6 G -150 ..... .....
302 68- 4948 V8 G 210-235 295-318 8.5:1
302 4948 V8 EFI-G ..... ..... .....
351W 69- .... V8 ..... 250-300 355-380 8.6:1
351C .... V8 ..... ..... ..... .....
351M .... V8 ..... ..... ..... .....
460 .... V8 EFI-G 250 355.. .....

(IN) (IN) (LBS) (IN) (IN)
260 3.8 2.87
289 4 2.87
302 4 3.0 425
351W 4 3.5 510
351C 550
351M 550
400M 550

Transmission Swaps
The three domestic transmissions most commonly swapped into a Land Cruiser are
the SM420 (used in Chev trucks until 1969) SM465 (used in Chev trucks from 1969-
1992) and NV4500 (used in GM and Dodge trucks from 1992-)

SM420 Muncie GM Trucks 47-67 4 7.05 3.57S 1.70S 1.00S 7.05
SM465 Muncie GM Trucks 68-92? 4 6.54 3.58S 1.70S 1.00S 6.09
NV4500 New GM Trucks 92-94 5 6.34S 3.44S 1.71S 1.00S 0.73S 6.34
Vent- Dodge Trucks 92- 5 5.61S 3.04S 1.67S 1.00S 0.74S 5.61S
ure gear GM Trucks 94- 5 5.61S 3.04S 1.67S 1.00S 0.74S 5.61S

(IN) (IN)
SM420 10.5 4.686
SM465 12.0 5.125
NV4500 12.0

S following a gear ratio indicated synchronized

The SM420 is probably the most popular transmission swap for a LC because of its
extremely low first gear. It also has the advantage of being virtually a direct
bolt-up to a three Toyota 3 speed bellhousing. All that is required is some
minor drilling, a pilot bearing adapter, and a throwout bearing sleave, and an
adapter and spud shaft to go between the transmission and transfer case. The
biggest disadvantage with the SM420 is parts availability. Because the
transmission hasn't been made in almost 30 years, many of the parts have been
discontinued. Adapting the transmission to a truck that formerly had a 4 speed
transmission is also a bit more involved, requiring either an adapter
bellhousing or a modified 3 speed bellhousing to be fitted.

The bolt pattern and bore of the SM465 is different so it will not bolt up to
either the 3 speed or 4 speed bellhousing. Although it has a higher first gear
ratio, this transmission definitely a better than the swap for those removing a
Toyota 4 speed because the parts will be readily available from your local GM
dealer. The SM465 is also somewhat beefier than the SM420.

The NV4500 is probably the ultimate domestic transmission. It has both granny
low and overdrive in a package that is approximately the same length as an
SM420. It is built to handle high horsepower and torque so the internals are
very strong. The big drawback for this transmission is that because it is so
new, it is very rare in junkyards. It is also extremely popular which drives
the price up. The early GM unit is the hardest to find. Probably the ultimate
setup is the Early GM/Late GM and Dodge hybrid which gives you the low first gear of the early GM
unit combined with the better third gear ratio and synchronized reverse of the
Late GM/Dodge transmission.

Of course, all the above mentioned transmission swap will require driveshaft
length changes.

If you swap a domestic transmission in along with a domestic engine, matters are
simplified. You just have to find the domestic bellhousing that will fit your
engine and has the correct bore for your desired transmission.

Transfer Case/Axle Swaps

Swapping a non-Land Cruiser transfer case into your truck is a difficult
proposition. This is due to the fact that all but the very early Land Cruiser
axles have both differentials offset to the passenger's side. Virtually all
domestic vehicles have the front differential offset to the driver's or
passenger's side while the rear differential is centred. If you use a domestic
transfer case with Land Cruiser axles, you will wind up with a two-plane
driveshaft angle. Apparently, the axle housing can be reversed to decrease the
angle, but this is still a very unadvisable setup.

If a domestic transfer case is required, the axles should be replaced as well.
Dana 60s and up are the only axles that are comparable/superior in strength to
the stock Land Cruiser axles. Reverse-cut Dana 60s have the pinion located
above the centreline of the ring gear and will result in somewhat improved
driveshaft angles in trucks with a great deal of lift.


Aluminum Tubs - Rob Mullen (
I've got an Aluminum tub on my Cruiser and I love it. It sure beats having
things fall out the rust holes in the back and getting a spray of water on you
from where the rear wheel wells used to be :) There are two schools of thought
when it comes to tubs:

Retain the steel sills (my style)
The steel sills around the doors and along the top of the tub were retained
(the remainder of the sheet metal is cut away with an air nibbler) Mine goes
from the firewall back. My tub is all 1/8" Aluminum plate with bits of
6061-T6 1/8" wall structural (round corner) square tubing/channel for body
mounts and gas tank strap mounts.
Mine cost me CA$2400 (US$1700+/-) but that included a new fuel tank & sender,
and I also got a "better shape than mine" hard top thrown in for free (a
one-time lucky break for me) Keep in mind that my tub was for the body style
with the gas tank under the floor and required quite a bit of bending on a
hydraulic brake to make the right shape.
+ Doors and hard top fit properly
+ Slightly more body rigidity
+ Sides are held on with pop rivets + a few tack welds and can be easily
removed/replaced if damaged
- Steel can continue to rust along the edges until pop rivets securing
aluminum to steel pull out (requires finding some steel sqaure tubing with
the same OD as the sill's ID shoving it in and re-riveting--I'm probably
going to have to do this soon on the driver's side at least)
- not a "bolt-on" installation - requires a reasonably skilled sheet metal
worker to cut old steel away nicely
- not widely available. Most tubs in this style are home made/made by local
Cruiser gurus and are therefore harder to find (Mine was built by a
Cruiser fanatic that used to make aluminum boats for a living.

All aluminum (style manufactured in Kelowna--Aqualu/Land Cruiser Solutions)
One note: The tubs I'm talking about is made by a Kelowna, B.C. company
called Aqualu Industries. These are sold east of the Mississippi by
Land Cruisr Solutions. Anyways, on with the description:

The entire tub behind the "drip rail" that runs down in front of the door
hinges is hacked away. The sills are replaced with 6061-T6 1/8"
round-edge... which leads to the door/hard top fit problems described by Gary
Bjork. Here's a quickie ascii illustration of the cross-section of the lower
part of the door and sill to show you:

Stock doors/sills Kelowna style body
| | | |
|Door| | |
| __/ | __/
| |O || | |O +------+ Legend
|_|O / |__ |_|O | | O = Rubber Seal
/ | | |
/ Sill | | |
|______| |______|
| |
| |

As you can (hopefully) see, the stock doors fit flush into the body whereas
the "Kelowna Style" stick out by an amount equivalent to the width of the
bottom edge of the door (about 1/2"?) The hard top also sticks out by this
by the width of the bottom edge. The tub is made from material thinner than
1/8" (3/32", I think) and is available with both checker and smooth sides.
If you only run a soft top and soft doors, the fit problems I described above
will not really be noticable.

There is now a version of the tub available with "factory-style" sills. It
costs extra though.


EARLY-78 CA$1955 (~US$1396) CA$2475 (~US$1768)
79-84 CA$2346 (~US$1675) CA$2865 (~US$2046)

+ minimal cutting - true bolt-on installation
+ don't have to worry about sills rotting away
+ if your're truck has been rolled/crashed you instantly get a straight tub!
+ much easier to move to a newer/better Cruiser if you buy one at a later date
- door/top fit problems outlined earlier (if you cheap out and don't get
- completely welded together - if you tweak it, you have to live with it

So there you have it, everything you ever wanted to know about aluminum tubs
(but were afraid to ask) ALMOST. Here's a few details that apply to both styles:

Aluminum is MUCH more difficult to paint than steel. A good finish would
probably require going to a high-end paint shop (Your local "Oh-Oh, better get a
new paint job" place probably couldn't handle it)

Aluminum tubs can't really be fixed if they're severly kinked/dented (or at
least not as well as a conventional steel sheet metal body. I talked to my
insurance agent about mine and she thought that replacing my tub in the event of
an accident would be covered under the same heading as aluminum pick-up

Aqualu makes aluminum front fenders, but they were kind of ugly IMHO. Because
they could only roll and not stamp the fenders, they couldn't duplicate the
compound curves at the front of the fender and just left off the last little
curve on the front of the fender. They sold for something like CA$395 a pair

Finally, for those of you that don't like aluminum, I have seen a replacement
tub made out of 3/16" STEEL! I suspect it would have made the truck into a
complete slug, however resistance to small arms fire would be a huge advantage
to anyone living in LA/Washington/Detroit :)

Breather Relocation - Rob Mullen (
NOTE: It's been a while since I've done this and may have forgotten
something, also, this is the last article I typed in for v1.0 so I'm pretty
fried. If I say something that seems wrong, it probably is. Anyone who
tries these directions, drop me a line and let me know if I missed anything.

Depending on what year and model of Cruiser you own, you may have the pop
valve axle breathers mounted directly to the axle housing. If you truck ever
sees any water off-road (or good flooding on road) this set-up is inadequate.
The check valves always become clogged. This either allows water to stream
into your axle housing, or worse, does not allowing your axle to breathe which
results in blown seals which THEN let water in. For water over bumper height,
even Toyota's breather hoses that reach up to the frame height aren't enough.

Fortunately, replacing your breathers is both simple and cheap. First you
must remove the check valves. Before doing this, ensure the area around the
breather is free of mud/grime--you don't want to have any grit falling into
the breather hole and wearing your ring and pinion. Once the valves are out,
check the threads to determine if they're fine or coarse (all breathers after
1971 are fine thread. Some rear breathers from prior to 71 are coarse. I am
not sure if this procedure would work with coarse threads so attempt it at
your own risk. Temporarily pop the valves back in and go to your hardware

You will need 2 1/4" brass right angle NPT to compression fittings, 2 plastic
ferrules and hose inserts, 15' of 1/4"OD nylon hose (poly will do in a pinch, a T
junction with compression fittings on all sides, a whole whack of small
*zip-ties, a 10mm tapping die (same thread as your breathers), some 3/8"
washers, 2 M10x1.25 nuts, 3" of 1/4"ID rubber hose (like fuel line), 2 1/4" hose
clamps, cutting fluid (oil will do in a pinch), Blue Loctite 242, and
(recommended but not required) 15' of corregated wire loom covering that will
fit over the pipe. If your axles are the style where the rear breather comes
up through the brake line T, you will also need a 1-1/2" length of 3/8" brass
pipe (often available as a pre-threaded length) and a fitting for joining the
pipe to the right angle fitting.

The following procedure applies to situations where the brass pipe and coupler
are not required.

1. Re-cut the NPT threads on the angle fittings with a 10mmx1.25 die. If you
don't have a die handle, you can always use a wrench, but this increases
your chances of cross-threading. Don't forget 1 turn forwards, 1/2 turn
back, and use lots of cutting fluid. You may have a couple of threads that
are messed up because of interference between the metric and NPT threads,
but it should still be strong enough.
2. Coat the threads on the fitting with Blue Loctite
3. Thread a M10x1.25 nut onto the right angle fitting.
4. Thread the right angle fitting into the axle until it won't go any farther
(DO NOT OVERTIGHTEN -- the brass is nowhere near as strong as steel)
5. Back the fitting off until it's pointing in the direction you want.
6. Tighten the bolt.

The following procedure applies to those who bought the brass pipe and coupler

1. Coat the coupler's threads with Blue Loctite. Thread the pipe into one end and
the right angle fitting into the other.
2. Re-cut the threads on the pipe as per #1 above. Cut approximately 5/16" of
3. Coat the pipe's threads with Loctite
4. Thread the assembly into the axle. (If tightens pointing in the wrong
direction, remove it and try shimming it with a washer so it points in the
right direction)

Once the angles are in place, you can put on the hose.

1. Remove the compression nut and brass ferrule from the right angle fitting.
2. Plan out the routing of your hose. It is best to have it travel up along
the brake lines, that way there is less of a chance of the hose being
damaged by branches etc under the truck. A good location for the T is
right against the brake line L that is mounted on the frame below the
master cylinder. True hard-core types who don't mind the smell of gear
oil can route the line that comes off the T through the firewall into the
passenger compartment for maximum fording ablility. Otherwise if you're
not equipped with a snorkle, plan to send the line up along the fire wall
to hood height. Those lucky enough to have snorkels should route the line
up the back side of the snorkle.
3. Once you've planned the route, cut the plastic tubing and loom cover to the
required lengths.
4. Slide the compression nut and a plastic ferrule onto each end of the hose.
5. Place the hose inserts inside each end of the hose to prevent it from being
crushed when you tighten the compression nuts.
6. Slide the hose into the angle fitting, and tighten the compression nut.
7. Route the hose along the frame of the truck and attach the other end to the
8. Snap the loom cover over the hose and zip tie it securely to the frame or a
brake line along its whole length.
9. Place the compression nut ferrule and hose insert onto one end of the hose
that is to be routed up along the firewall/into the passenger
compartment/up the snorkle and tighten it down.
10. Thead/stuff the one of the old breather pop valves into the rubber hose
and clamp it securely with a hose clamp.
11. Fit the other end of the rubber hose over the top of the plastic tubing
and clamp it with the second hose clamp.

Now your axles are waterproof (if the seals are good :) Unfortunately, there
are still two breathers you must worry about for SERIOUS fording. They are on
the transfer case and steering box. Unfortunately, I haven't gotten around to
relocating these yet. All that will be required when I do this is splicing
two more T's into the plastic tubing. The steering box should require a
procedure identical to the one outlined here, but I think the transfer case
may have a different sized breather plug and require something more creative.

Glow Plugs - Rob Mullen (
It is considerably cheaper to buy your glow plugs from somebody other than
Toyota. NGK makes 2 models that fit B's, 3B's, and 2H's. The part number for
the 24V version is Y197R. The 12V version is not available in North America.

In the event that your glow plugs fail far from civilizaton, it is still
possible to start your truck (as long as it is not too cold outside) Simply
heat a largish pot of water until it is about to come to a rolling boil. Then
pour the hot water over the intake manifold and injection nozzles of the truck.
The truck should start as if you'd actually used the glow plugs. If the truck
still won't start, try several more pots of water to heat the manifold further.

Ride Harshness - Rob Mullen (
Short wheel base trucks ride rough and there is not a whole lot that can be
done about it. There are a few options to soften the ride though. In order
of "Bang-For-The-Buck" they are:

These will make your Cruiser ride like the axles are bolted directly to
the frame.

2. Keep lifts as small as possible.
The higher up you are, the more pitching motions of the truck are

3. Use the right shocks.
In BC, the preferred shock set up for FJ40's is 70/30 Gas charged shocks
(like KYB Gas-A-Just) up front and 50/50 Oil shocks in the rear (Like
Rancho RS5000) The B series engines are lighter than the F's so 70/30
shocks in the front give a _VERY_ harsh ride. The preferred set-up for
BJ-40's is 50/50 oil shocks at all four corners. This may also be the
best set-up for V8 Owners

4. If you have the Rancho 2.5" 7 leaf Lift, you can improve the ride quality
by modifying the spring wrappers. Rancho makes the wrappers too tight
for proper spring movement. If you pry open the outermost sets of
wrappers, the ride will become softer and your articulation will increase
by several inches. The remaining three wrappers are sufficient to prevent
spring pack shifting.

5. If your truck is lifted, you can soften the ride by removing one of the
short leaves. Unfortunately, removing a leaf will also decrease ride
height and load capacity.

6. Front shackle reversal
Reversing the front shackles allows the axle to pivot up and backwards
(away) from obstacles instead of forwards into them. Shackle reversal
will also decrease bump steer by keeping the steering linkage geometry
constant over obstacles. Reversals that recess the shackle mount into the
frame are superior because they do not increase lift, and the fixed front
mounts are not as likely to become "boulder finders" However, they may
also create shackle movement problems.

7. Polyurethane Bushings/Greasable Shackles
Adding polyurethane bushings will not soften the ride but will improve
handling by preventing the springs from twisting relative to the mounts.
Polyurethane is also required for greasable shackles because dino-based
grease will break down rubber bushings quickly. Using after-market
shackles will further improve handling by resisting shackle twisting,
while greasable pins allow the springs to move more freely to absorb

Steering Wandering-Rob Mullen (
There are four basic components in the 40 series steering system that can wear
out/go out of adjustment and cause steering slop/wandering. They are the tie
rod ends, drag link end, centre arm, and steering box.

A small amount of play in each of the tie rod edns can add up to a huge amount
of steering slop. The only way tie rods should be able to be moved by hand is
to rotate slightly on an axis that runs through the ball joints at each end of
the rod. Even this motion should feel "snug." If the tie rod can be moved in
any other direction the ball joints are probably worn and should be replaced.

The drag link connects to the pitman arm that comes off the steering box. If
the link can be moved in a fore-aft motion without the pitman arm moving, the
end is out of adjustment. The adjustment procedure is fairly simple. Remove
the cotter pin, and with a very large slot screwdriver tighten the end plug as
far as you can, then back it out 1/2 turn. Finally, put in a new cotter pin.

The centre arm probably accounts for most 40 series steering problems. It is
located on the drivers side in front of the front frame crossmember. To test
if your centre arm is worn or needs adjustment, have someone turn the
steering wheel back and forth while you stand in front of your truck. The
centre arm shaft should only rotate about a vertical axis and not twist
side-side. If the shaft twists, it may only be out of adjustment. To adjust
it, loosen the lock bolt on top of the centre arm. Next remove the top cap.
Check inside the arm for grease. If there is none, chances are you centre arm
is scrap, but it's worth packing it and re-testing it anyways before you blow
$100 on a re-build kit. Once you've filled the housing with grease, replace
the top cap. Tighten it down as far as you can then back it of 1/4 turn.
Then tighten the locking bolt. Finally, repeat the steering wheel turn test.
If the shaft still twists, you need a re-build.

The 40 series manual steering box will only fail to outlive you if one of two
things happen: it's run without oil, or its not adjusted periodically. The
only way for the oil to get out is if the sector shaft seal fails. Should
this happen, you can get by by packing the housing with grease until you have
time to replace the seal. Adjustment of the steering box should only be
attempted after reading the Toyota Steering or Body/Chassis manual.

If you are running larger than stock tires, you will need a larger than stock
steering dampener to stop wandering. IMHO, the Old Man Emu stabilizer is the
way to go. It is a VERY sturdy bolt-in replacement for the stock stabilizer.
The other alternative is to get something like the Rancho kit or Heckthorn
"Big Yellow" which require adding brackets to the axle and tie rod. I believe
the OME unit is superior because it puts the stabilizer higher up where it is
less likely to be smacked by rocks or submerged in water, it doesn't introduce
any strange off-axis forces in the tie rods and it doesn't require the cheezy
clamp-on brackets.

Steering can also be improved by using polyurethane bushings/aftermarket
shackles as detailed in the section on Ride Harshness.

Transmission and Transfer Removal Tips-Rob Mullen (
The transmission and transfer case should be removed as a unit, even if you
only need to remove the transfer case. The transmission will separate easily
from the bellhousing whereas separating the transfer case from the
transmission usually requires a puller. Removing the transmission also allows
you to inspect the clutch and pilot bearing.

Save your old large-eye rubber spring bushings. They are great for removing
the shifter from your manual transmission. Instead of using two screwdrivers
to push and twist (and scratch) the shift lever cap, use the bushing. First,
remove the ball at the end of the shifter. Slide the bushing (narrow end
down) to the base of the shifter. Then slide a 19mm or larger box end wrench
(or the end of a large crescent wrench) down the shifter. Clamp a set of
Vise-Grips on to the bushing tight enough to twist it, but not so tight as to
clamp it to the shifter. Then while pushing down HARD on the box-end wrench,
twist the Vise-Grips clockwise. The shift lever cap should pop right off.

The pilot bearing should be replaced every time you remove the transmission as
it is an inexpensive part that can cause major headaches if it fails. The
easiest way to remove the pilot bearing is with the Toyota puller (SST#
09303-55010 F&HJ, SST# 09303-35010 BJ) Sometimes the bearing is so tightly
wedged into the crankshaft that more drastic measures are required. If the
bearing cannot be budged with the puller, the next easiest method is to cut it
out. To prepare for this, you must first remove the inner race and ball
bearings. To remove the inner race, knock out the black ball bearing cover
with a screw driver. Next, poke out the bearing cage. Removal of the cage
will allow you to move all the ball bearings to one side of the race. The
inner race should then pop out easily. After you fish out all the ball
bearings, you are ready to begin cutting the outer race. For this, you will
need a Dremel tool and some cut-off disks. The 1-1/4" discs are too large and
will need to be worn down to 1" or smaller for this to work. To wear the disk
down, find a piece of scrap steel and cut it. Pressing too hard will quickly
wear the disk down. Once the disk is small enough, you can begin to cut the
race, You will need to make two cuts, 90 degrees to each other. If the disk
is 1" in diamater, you will be able to make two cuts 180 degrees to each other
at the same time. Keep a close eye on your cutting to ensure you do not cut
cut the crank shaft. Don't worry abou making a small nick or two in the race

It will not cause serious problems. Once you have made 2 (or 4) cuts in the
outer race, pry it out with a screw driver. You should place something to pry
against on the flywheel in the recessed area that does not contact the clutch
(Don't scratch the face that contacts the clutch!) A piece of steel similar to
a pre-'81 shackle works well for this. If you're blessed with a newer
Cruiser, a piece of 1/2"x3"x1" steel channel (fig A) (or something similar)
will also do.
1/2| | | |
|/ |/ <--- 1"
fig A

Be sure to wear eye protection as the race will only give a little warning
(some visible twisting) before flying out.

Putting the tranny back in is a tiresome process. An engine hoist is
essential if you want to preserve your sanity. Jacking the tranny/transfer
assmebly from below is virtually impossible. You should buy 3 M12x60x1.25 or so
bolts to help you allign the transmission. Manouver the tranny into position so
that the input shaft is through the throw-out bearing and at least one of the
tranny-bellhousing holes is alligned (the lower passenger side one is a good
place to start) Thread one of the longer M12 bolts through the tranny and into
the bellhousing (be sure there's alot of thread going into the bellhousing so it
won't tear out if it has to take some of the tranny's weight. Next, rotate the
tranny about the bolt until another hole is alligned. Pop in another of your
M12 bolts in. You may have to level the tranny a little before you can get the
last bolt in. (Put it on the passenger's side--it's easier to remove) You
should then be able to walk the tranny along the bolts until its right up snug
with the bellhousing. It may take a little push to close the final 1/4" gap.
If there is resistance before this point, chances are the tranny's input shaft
is not going through the pilot bearing properly. BE CAREFUL. If you crush the
pilot bearing, you'll have to repeat the whole removal/installation process!
Once the tranny is in position, put one of the stock length bolts into the
driver's side top hole. Finally, remove the allignment bolts one by one and
install the stock bolts.

V8J40 Cooling Tips - Fred Welland (
Fred Welland 350 (400) 7 BLADE AIRCO 2F 190-230
Karl Klashinsky 350 Electric 5/6 CORE 200-210
Mike Bennett 350 5-CORE X-FLO 200-210
Mike Sousa 350 7 BLADE CADDY 4-CORE 185-200

The ideal maximum temperature for a SB Chevy in a Land Cruiser is 200 degrees
Fahrenheit. The maximum allowable is probably in the 230-240 range.

Flex fans are generally regarded as the poorest type for extreme cooling.
Clutch fans are the next worst
Electrical fans are the next. They have two advantages: the ablility to be
manually shut off during water crossings to prevent splashing, and greater fuel
economy. However, a single electrical fan does not move enough air--a dual fan
push-pull arrangement may be better though.
It is generally agreed that some type of fixed pitch fan with many deep blades
is the best. It will move the greatest amount of air, however, it will provide
your truck with DC-3 on takeoff roll sound-effects and will function as an
excellent screw in water crossings. Some sources of thes monster props are air
conditioning suppliers and Cadillacs.

A high flow water pump can be good for as much as a 10 degree temperature drop.

For extreme temperature duty, molded hoses tend to be more rupture-resistant
than flexible ones.

In most cases, the sender is located on the side of the block between cylinders 1 and 2.

Piece of cake. I hoped I could just slide the radiator down in the u-shaped
channel and drill some new holes. Nope, I couldn't get the radiator down
enough: you might be able to. If not, take out the radiator and u-shaped
mount. The radiator mounts to the u-shaped mount and the u-shaped mount sits
on two brackets extending back from the front crossmember. Figure out where
you want the radiator to sit (fore and aft) and then cut off enough of the
existing brackets so the radiator and mount will move straight down. Figure
out how low you want the radiator to sit and then weld two pieces of angle
iron to the ends of the brackets to make a new lower shelf for the u-shaped
mount to sit on.

old mount: |__________ new mount: |______
|__________| |______|
| | |___

When I got my radiator low enough, the corner of my u-shaped mount wanted to
occupy the same space as my steering column shaft. I chopped a section out of
the u-shaped mount for clearance around the steering shaft and just reinforced
the inside of the mount with another small piece of steel. Looks funny, but
it works. Bend, cut, weld, or something so you can reattach the side braces
and your down the road!

Some claim that a fan shoud makes all the differnce in the world, however some
there are also those that say installing a shroud had no effect.

Adding an oil cooler should make a difference in your engine temperature because
theoretically you now have two paths for heat to leave the engine. Adding an
oil cooler has the advantage of increasing your oil capacity (although it will
cost you more for an oil change)

> Water Wetter is available from any Super Shops. It's $6.95/bottle. If they
> don't have it in stock they will order it for you.

Water Wetter is made by Redline. You can order it directly from them at
1-800-624-7958 if you can't find it locally. However, it may be subject
to a minimum order. It works.

Land Cruiser Clubs

North America
Toyota Land Cruiser Association (TLCA)
PO Box 607
Placerville, CA 95667-0607
Kara Patston (Membership):
Gary Bjork (Toyota Trails Editor):
Membership Services:1(800)397-3260 24hr voice/fax

This information (esp. Contacts and Phone #'s) may change fairly regularly,
contact TLCA for more info.

Basin & Range Cruisers
1639 East 4500 South
Salt Lake City, UT 84124
Contact: Jack Christensen

405 S Rose St.
Escondido, CA 92027
Contact: Brad Phillips

Capital Land Cruiser Club
45655C Woodland Rd.
Sterling, VA 20166
Contact: James Asti

Cascade Cruisers
10045 S. Marquam Circle
Molalla, OR 97038
Contact: Peter Poling

Coastal Cruisers
2360 Douglas Road
Burnaby, B.C.
V5C 5B2
Contact: Dave Romaniuk
E-contact: Rob Mullen

Gold Coast Cruisers
761 Coronado Pl.
Oxnard, CA 93030
Contact: Lary Moczulski

Georgia Cruisers
PO Box 467691
Atlanta, GA 31146
Contact: Steve Clevenger

High-N-Dry Four Wheelers
9432 E. Ave. T-10
Littlerock, CA 93543
Contact: Mike Greear

Keystone Cruisers, TLCA of PA
1063 E. Caracas
Hershey, PA 17033
Contact: Ken Johannsen

Massachusetts Coastal Transit Authority
3 Federal St.
Newburyport, MA 01950
Contact: Tedd Brown

Mid-Ohio Land Cruisers
1791 E. Orange Rd.
Lewis Center, OH 43035
Contact: Bill Scott

Mountain Transit Authority
PO Box 54024
San Jose, CA 95154
Contact: Bill Youngman

Nor-Cal Marauders
13880 Noble Way
Red Bluff, CA 96080
Contact: Jim Bosman

Rising Sun 4 Wheel Drive Club of Colorado
4125 S. Lisbon Way
Aurora, CO 80013
Contact: Chris Hatfield

Southeast Land Cruiser Association
208 Reidhurst Ave.
Nashville, TN 37203
Contact: Rainey Kirk

Southern Nevada Land Cruisers
PO Box 28004
Las Vegas, NV 89126
Contact: David Hawkins

So. Cal. TLCA
PO Box 1291
Sunset Beach, CA 90742
Contact: Ed Bailey

Totally Landcruisers of New Jersey
PO Box 114
Eatontown, NJ 07724
Contact: Al Kaplan

TLCA Los Angeles County
1849 Lucretia Ave.
Los Angeles, CA 90026
Contact: Bill Ferguson

TLCA Ventura County (founding chapter)
PO Box 367
Ventura, CA 93002
Contact: Michelle Bolton

Toyotally Awesome Cruisers of Auburn
PO Box 5482
Auburn, CA 95604
Contact: Marty Patton
E-Contact: Jeff Hassi

Toys 4 Fun
PO Box 4086
Fresno, CA 93744
Contact: Chuck Parks

Toys on the Rocks
PO Box 546
Placerville, CA 95667
Contact: Jerry Schroeder

Virginia Land Cruiser Association
205 Bayview Dr.
Yorktown, VA 23692
Contact: Bill Baxter

Washington Timber Toys
PO Box 2963
Woodinville, WA 98072-2963
Contact: Gordon Quehrn

Windy City Land Cruisers
4741 Montgomery Ave.
Downers Grove, IL 60515
Contact: Jim Today

Toyota Landcruiser Club of Australia (Victoria) Inc.
PO Box 363
Hawthorn, Vic 3122

Toyota Landcruiser Club of Australia (SA) Inc.
PO Box 55
Oaklands Park, SA 5046

Toyota LandCruiser Club of Queensland Inc.
PO Box 309
Wooloongabba, Qld 4102

Toyota Landcruiser Club of Vic, Geelong Branch
PO Box 515
Geelong, Vic 3220

Toyota LandCruiser Club (NSW)
PO Box 2
Bankstown, NSW 2200

Toyota Landcruiser Club The Netherlands
c/o Jos Coppes
Albionstraat 12
5809 AD Leunen
the Netherlands
phone: 0478-512935 (day)
and: 0478-583290 (evenings)

Parts Suppliers
N New Parts
U Used Parts
C Catalog Available
S Service or Custom Work
V Complete Vehicles
* Specialty Products

North America
Advance Adapters, Inc.
N,C Engine/Transmission/TC Adapters
PO Box 247
Paso Robles, CA 93447
(805)238-7000 FAX (805)238-4201

Advanced Four Wheel Drive Systems
1102 South 200 West
Salt Lake City, UT 84101
(801)521-2334 FAX (801)521-2335

All American Enterprises 4x4
4830 N. Hwy 97
Klamath Falls, OR 97601

Aqualu Industries
3251-A Sexsmith Road
Kelowna, BC Canada
(604) 765-6714 FAX (604)765-6704

Air Lockers, ARB bumpers,
1425 Elliott Ave. W Old Man Emu Springs, Shackles
Seattle, WA 98119
(206)284-5906 FAX (206)284-6171

Brown's Toyota City
N New parts at wholesale
7167 Ritchie Hwy.
Glen Burnie, MD 21061

BTB Products
N,U,M,S Adv. Adapters, PS Conv, Compressors
825 Civic Center Dr. #8 Springs, Disc Conv, Cages, Tire Racks
Santa Clara, CA 95050
(408)984-5444 FAX (408)984-0155

Clifford Performance
N,C 6-1 Headers, camshafts, EFI kits
2330 Pomona-Rincon Rd.
Corona, CA 91720
(714)734-3310 (714)734-3405

Colorado Toyota Specialists
26366 Sutton Rd.
Conifer, CO 80433

N,C Bumpers, Skid Plates, Shackles, Diff
123 South Front St., Dept. FW0495 Skids, Roof Racks, Storage Boxes
Burbank, CA 91502-1983
(213)849-1800, (818)848-2025,2330,6993

"Cool Cruisers" of Texas
V,N Sells Restored Land Cruisers, Body
101 - 5101 Grisham Drive Panels, Bolt-on Air Conditioning
Rowlett (Dallas Suburb), TX 75243 **NO CATALOGS OR OTHER PARTS
(214)707-8993 FAX (214)303-0619 AVAILABLE**

Cruiser Parts
2852 NW Highland Ave.
Grants Pass, OR 97526

Downey Off-Road Manufacturing
N,C,M Tanks, Bumpers, Cams, Adapters,
10001 S. Pioneer Blvd. Clutches, Dietributors, Tops, Diffs
Santa Fe Springs, CA 90670
(213)949-9494 FAX (213)949-5718

FabTech Manufacturing & Off Road, Inc.
N,U,S,C 14ga Steel Tubs, Fenders, PS
#9 - 150 Campion Rd. Conversions, Restored LC's,
Kelowna, B.C. Shackle Reversal
Canada V1V 1L9
(604)765-0019 FAX (604)765-1419

Front Range Cruisers
N,U Buy/Sell/Trade
2406 North Logan Ave.
Colorado Springs, CO. 80907
(719)633-8178 FAX (719)475-7609

Hadley Industries
4785 Pratt
Metamora, MI 48455

Interior Auto Wrecking
U, V Used FJ/BJ/HJ Parts
3101 45th Ave.
Vernon, B.C.
Canada V1T 3N7
(604)545-2104 FAX (604)542-3335

James Toyota
172 Route 202
Flemington, NJ 08822
(908)788-5700 FAX (908)788-7887

Jim's Fuel Injection Service
N Diesel injector service,
112-1083 East Kent Ave. Diesel fuel pump parts
Vancouver, B.C. Bolt on turbo kits
V5X 4V?

K & L Engineering*
6355 Smith Ave.
Mira Loma, CA 91725

Land Cruiser Advanced Handling
N,S Suspension Correction (Shackle
1029 S.E.24th Reversal), Springs, Spring Over
Albany, OR 97321 Conversion

Land Cruiser Recycling
PO Box 11727
Blacksburg, VA 24060-1727

Land Cruiser Solutions
Al Tubs, Grilles, Tailgates, Fenders,
3 Federal Street Running Boards
Newburyport, MA 01950,
(508) 462-5656

Land Cruisers Unlimited
U,N,S Steel 1/2 Doors, Tail Lights, Tire
E. 7555 Ohio Match Road Carriers, FR/RR Discs, Bumpers
Rathdrun, ID 83858

Laughing Horse Design
12205 Lockey Lane Ste 12
Auburn, CA 95602

Lou Fusz Toyota
N,C New Toyota Parts, Accessories, &
10725 Mancheser St. Performance Parts
St Louis, MO, 63122
1-800-325-9581(CA/US) (314)-966-5404

Malotte Manufacturing Co., Inc.
N,C Fibreglass tubs, tops, fenders
PO Box 305
Lincoln, CA 95648

N,U,M,C 6-1 Headers, Carbs, Toyota Parts,
5076 Chesebro Rd. Rebuilt Parts, Lights, Springs,
Agoura, CA 91301 Shocks, LSD's, Old Man Emu, ARB,
(818)991-6689 FAX (818)991-7105 Con-Ferr Advance Adapters

Mark's Off Road Enterprises
437 N. Moss Street
Burbank, CA 90501
(818)953-9230 FAX (818)953-7225

Marlins Auto & Truck Repair
S Marlin Crawlers?
1543-B N. Maple
Fresno, CA 93703

Nairobi Outfitters Extreme duty grillguards/winchmounts
PO Box 1211 Expedition quality vehicle
Goleta, Ca 93117 modifications/fabrication, tech support

National Spring
N Custom springs/lift kits
Dept. OR
1402 N. Magnolia Ave.
El Cajon, CA 92020

Northwest Off-Road Specialties
N,C,F 80 Series Accessories ONLY
1999 Iowa St.
Bellingham, WA 98226
(206)676-1200 FAX (206) 676-5401

Olympic Off Road
3735 S Pine Suite E
Tacoma, WA 98409

Ozone Off-Road, Inc.
N,U,S,C,V Performance items, fibreglass bodies,
86 Freeman's Bridge Rd. V8 conv., suspension, frame mounted
Glenville, NY 12302 roll bars/cages

PowerTrax/Lock Right*
245 Fischer Ave. B-4
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
(800)562-5377 FAX (714)545-5425

Ramsey Winch Co.*
Winches?! :)
PO Box 581510
Tulsa, OK 74158
(918)438-2760 FAX (918)438-6688

Renegade Fabrication Service or Custom Work, Specialty
18447 N. 33rd Avenue Products
Phoenix, AZ, U.S.A. 85023-1050
(602) 938-3185

R&M Specialty Products*
Onboard hot-water showers
PO Box 1683
Windsor, CA 95492

Rocky Mountain Offroad Specialties
365 Bonny Street, Suite A
Grand Junction, CO, U.S.A. 81503
(800) 524-6005

Specter Off-Road, Inc.
N,U,M,C New/Used Toyota USA/NON USA Parts
21600 Nordhoff St. 3-2-1 Headers, Conn-Ferr
Chatsworth, CA 91311
(818)882-1238 FAX (818)882-7144

Stevens Creek Toyota, Inc.
4425 Stevens Creek Blvd.
Santa Clara, CA 95050-7395
(408)984-1234 FAX (408)246-8028

TLC Mechanix Owner: Adrian McGlaughlin
N,U,S,V Power steering, disc brakes,
122 S. Lillie Lane V8 conversions, suspensions, custom
Fayetteville, AR 72701 fabrication.
501-582-4TLC (4852)

TLC Offroad
N,U,S New/Used Parts, ARB/OME, 24V bulbs,
2360 Douglas Rd. Nippondenso glow plugs
Burnaby, BC
V5C 5B2

Toyotas "R" Us
7730 CR 150
Salida, CO 81201

Truck Sales Co. Off-Road Center
2211 Dickerson Road
Nashville, TN 37207

Toyota Racing Development (TRD)
18240 South Western Avenue
Gardena, California 90248

Warden's Auto Repair
N,U,S,V SM420-3 SPD TC adapter kits
640 Main St. Bullet Proof CNC Milled Transfer
Placerville, CA 95667 Cases
(916)622-9242 FAX(909) 338-6709

W.E. For Wheel
PO Box 601
Crestline, CA 92325
(909)338-5120 FAX (989)338-6709

Don Kyatt 4WD Parts & Accessories
N,S Direct importer of spare parts,
172 Roden St. ARB Stockists
West Melbourne
Vic 3003

177 Chesterville Rd.
Vic 3189

108 Regency Rd.
Ferryden Park
SA 5010

Lean & Bennett New Toyota parts
307 Main St
Lithgow NSW 2790
063-522211 FAX 063-523009

Leo's Cruisers Early FJ40's and FJ55's, fibreglass body
2 Panamuna Ave panels
Taylors Lakes
Victoria Australia, 3038.
613 93902670 CELL 613 15 329433

Mark's Adapters
22 Sinclair Road
Dandenong, Victoria Australia, 3175
(03) 9793 3388 (03) 9706 8148